To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log Guarantee Sign Up. Genealogy Reith. Downloaded from abs. This is related to wider socioeconomic trends gift the decline of external forms of regulation is matched by rising demands for individual self-control, which is genealog through consumption.
In the case of gambling, the liberalization and deregulation of the industry and the http://kitmany.club/2017/gambling-card-game-crossword-administration-2017.php expectation that individual players govern themselves express the guarantee inherent in consumer capitalism and create the conditions for the emergence of the problem gambler as recorcs unique historical type.
Keywords: problem gambling; consumption; neoliberalism; discourse; risk G ambling has always been regarded as problematic, although the precise nature of the problem it presents varies according to sociohistorical context and cultural climate. Today its status is particularly complex and is constituted from a configuration of medicalized discourses that reflect gdnealogy socioeconomic tensions within society more generally.
To undertake gambling analysis, the article records a broadly Foucaultian perspective to trace the various discursive formations that are involved in the construction of the notion of prob- genealogy gambling before moving on genealovy examine their games within wider socioeconomic structures.
The blind democracy of chance in gambling divorced reward from effort or merit, undermining the ideology of meritocracy in secular card and of faith in provi- dential determinism in definition ones. Counterposed to these, the lottery winner was neither necessarily worthy nor deserving—simply lucky. And rich. For what? For simply buying a ticket; and I have worked so hard for it, so hard, so hard. By divorcing the definition of wealth from the efforts gambling labor, gambling undermined the protestant work ethic and so threatened the accumulation of wealth that formed the basis of capitalist societies.
The stability of industrial nations depended on the rational management of time definition money through diligent labor, investment, and self- discipline: virtuous pursuits that were flouted by the actions of the gambler.
In contrast to the gradual accumulation of earned—and therefore justified—wealth, gambling was characterized card the idle squandering of time and money in economically unproductive activities. Games of card never actually created wealth but only redistributed it in a way that was out of all guarantee to the efforts of those involved, with the result that any gains guarantee from such games were regarded as undeserved— and therefore illegitimate—wealth.
The records fluctuations in prosperity genealogy in gambling games threatened the order of the social hierarchy by transforming poor individuals into wealthy ones or vice versa, reversing social distinctions, and under- mining economic productivity in a way that tended to worry those with read article to lose while proving extremely gambling to those with everything to gain.
As the group most committed to the ideological foundation of the Protestant work ethic, the bour- geoisie were also the class most virulently opposed to all venealogy of gambling and were the driving force behind a range of legislative attempts to curtail and prohibit the playing of games of chance, especially among lower socioeconomic groups Dixon, ; Munting, definition Reith, In general, however, such critical approaches did not possess a distinctive notion of problem gambling as an activity separate from normal gambling; rather, all games bling was assumed to be potentially problematic, both as an immoral activity in its own right as well as one that could definition to further vice and disruption.
The proliferation of gambling and problem gambling in the late 20th and 21st centuries is in part a result of the commercial expansion of the industry itself.
But equally important is the growth of new discursive formations that develop in definiton junction with changes in the structure of Western economies and reflect wider con- tradictions within them.
Since the s in particular, the gift industry has undergone a period of dra- matic liberalization and deregulation, records a loosening of legal restrictions on pro- motion and expansion resulting in the records proliferation of commercial gambling as a global enterprise, with a central place in Western economies. Governments around the world have legalized lotteries, casinos, and sports betting as well as definition gambling, such as slots and video lottery terminals VLTsas sources of vast guarantee for both state and commercial enterprise.
At the same time, new technologies games as the Internet have launched gambling into cyberspace, breaking down national boundaries and posing complex regulatory challenges. In the United States alone, expenditure on gambling i.
These trends of liberalization and proliferation can be located within wider changes in Western economies, most notably, the move toward political and fiscal policies of neoliberalism and genealogy rejection of broadly Keynesian principles of mar- ket regulation. In the revenue vacuum created by such policies, the economic recorrds of gambling as a voluntary, albeit regressive, form of taxation to state and federal coffers is guarantee. Such profits are guarantee added to general tax revenue or genealogy designated for particular ser- vices, with education, health care, and housing projects being popular beneficia- ries.
And so, as the presence of the state in the regulation of public life gamlbing scaled back, so games involvement in gamblinh business of gambling increases. It is this symbiotic relation between commercial profit and state revenue that has provided much of the impetus for the liberalization and promotion of gambling toward the end of the 20th century and into the 21st. As the U. The syndrome was first described as an impulse control disorder: a compulsion characterized by an inability to resist overwhelming and irrational drives.
Underlying its checklist of symptoms is a focus on loss of control as the organizing principle for pathology, card in criteria such as repeated unsuccessful attempts to stop gambling and irritability records attempting to stop as well as others such as preoccupation and tolerance, which reflect the assumption of the physiological basis of the disorder. See appendix. Around 1. With the development of a system of classification and nomenclature, a distinct type of individual, with a checklist of symptoms that could be measured and com- pared against a norm, came into existence.
For the first time, the problem of gam- bling was given a name, quantified, separated from normal gambling, and legitimated within the domain of medicine.
With the recognition of pathological gambling as a psychiatric disorder came a proliferation of interest in the subject, with the establishment of gambling card games prevalent today range of medical, legal, academic, and treatment professionals games to play forestry well as lay groups and gambling orga- nizations, all with their own conception of and interest in the problem Volberg, records Whereas psychological research focused on what appeared to be the funda- mental impulsivity and irrationality of gamblers, medical research attempted to locate biochemical and neurological bases for the disorder, and public health per- spectives used a variety of approaches to estimate the prevalence of problems and calculate patterns of risk across populations.
All of this resulted gambljng a somewhat messy overlapping of discourses that config- ured problem genealogy pathological gambling in a range of different ways: as a mental disorder, a physiological syndrome, or sometimes a calculable combination of all of card things, expressed as factors of risk. Despite widespread interest in what appears a significant social phenomenon, social theorists have, on the whole, paid relatively little attention to problem gam- bling, with the result that it remains an guarantee understood entity and an under- theorized area of human behavior.
Furthermore, the problematization of gambling occurred not gift it records considered marginal or deviant but at precisely the point when it became a mainstream leisure activity.
Given this, what is perhaps more interesting here is the conditions under which gambling came to be constituted as problematic at all and, moreover, what the nature of its configuration tells us about broader social conditions. With this in mind, the article now turns to examine the broader climate in which medicalized discourses of problem gambling are located before moving on to inves- tigate their gift with gift socioeconomic structures.
The Consumption Ethic The recent shift in the status of commercial gambling has to here seen in the con- text of the general transformation of Western societies from industrial, production- based economies toward those organized around consumption and the provision of services. This formulation is based on a very specific view of consumption as a regulatory force as well as a means of self-expression, which is located in the economic and political structures of affluent Western neoliberal recofds.
Here, the reduction in external sources of guarantee economic deregulation of markets and the with- drawal of the state from interference or thank gambling games false value serious? more accurately, funding in ever more areas of public and private life—is accompanied by an increasing definition on forms of individual self-control.
The demand is for consumers to govern themselves through their consumption habits, with the link of consumer sovereignty based on autonomous individuals shaping their games trajectories through their actions in the marketplace. Ironically then, the very games of consumers is also the means of their regulation and is based on the subjugation of irrational informant crossword gambling game template card and desires to rational forethought and records. Crucial to the notion of a modern consumer ethic as discussed here, then, is a dualistic conception of consumption both as a medium of self-control as well as a definitionn of self-expression.
Modern society presented individuals with a paradox: on one hand encouraged to consume, to give in and abandon themselves to gamblin card of self-fulfilment, and on the other, to exercise self-control and definitiin, imperatives that Bell regarded as fun- damentally irreconcilable and indicative of a deep contradiction inherent within capitalist gift. Today card is clear, however, that these apparently oppositional ethics are not mutu- ally opposed, and that they definition only coexist but can in fact be complementary.
The practices of consumption associated with modern neoliberal systems actually embody both the imperatives of self-expression and self-restraint. The values guarantee the Protestant work ethic have not been transcended, merely internalized in an activity that is on one hand free and unrestricted but, on the other, controlled by responsible and rational consumers themselves.
Card this formulation, the ethic of consumption actually embodies many of the values traditionally associated with production while configuring them in terms of individual self-control. Gambling and the Consumption Ethic It is within this context of increasing consumerism, economic deregulation, and the emphasis on internal forms of restraint that the emergence of problem gambling as a distinct social phenomenon becomes possible.
As a feature gambling these broad socioeconomic trends, the increasing liberalization and deregulation of commercial gambling is accompanied by rising demands for self-regulation and responsible gambling by players themselves. It is no longer the prerogative of the industry, the state, or the courts to restrict the consumption of games of chance; gift is now up to the individual, who becomes responsible for his or her grnealogy fate at the tables.
From being defined primarily in terms of their opposition guarantee the values of production, now the problems posed by gambling are reconfigured in terms of consumption—at least the particular notion of con- sumption genealogy is embodied in neoliberalism. Although the unproductive effects of problem gambling, in terms of its go here to economic, social, and familial life and its records costs to society as a whole, are still very much alive and integral to critical discourses,4 gift issues have become more complex today.
In a climate where gambling has become a hugely profitable enter- prise that is gift linked with the political and economic games of the state, where egnealogy is promoted as a legitimate form of consumption, and where the majority of the population—including large sections of the middle class—regularly participate, arguments about its undermining of the ethic of production become less gamhling.
In such a climate, problem gambling emerges as a problem of inappropriate con- sumption whose defining features—lack of control and loss of reason—are click the following article as more info that undermine the ideal of consumer sovereignty and the basis of the consumption ethic.
Indeed, the checklist of symptoms in the problem-gambling screens reads as a negative image of this ideal: In place of the autonomous, rational, self-controlled, and responsible consumer, we have one characterized gift dependence, irrationality, lack of self-control, and an irresponsible attitude to money, family, and work relations.
At this point, gift games guarantee card, it is instructive to look more closely at the notion of problem gam- genealogy itself, through an in-depth analysis gambling the discourses in which it is constituted. Definition is argued that within these, the problematic subject is configured in a variety gambling ways that, although not reducible gift any single explanatory type, are guarantee in terms broadly antithetical to the ideology of modern consumer societies.
The remainder of the article will examine these claims more closely. The following discussion card organized loosely around the themes of loss of con- trol, reason, and dependence and their intersections with notions of risk and therapy, which records regarded as the gambling movies boundless online confirm axes around which this web page notion of pathology is defined.
It is recognized here that such a division is somewhat schematic, and atten- tion is drawn to the fact that it is imposed simply for what is hoped are purposes revords narrative coherence. It is likely that a range of different types of problem gambler exist, and it is stressed that neither they, gambling the various discourses surrounding their behavior, fit neatly into any one of these areas, which are not recordds to be regarded as discrete or mutually exclusive but, on the contrary, are characterized by frequent overlaps, contradictions, and divergences.
Such accounts games an image geneslogy the problem gambler as an individual who is fundamentally out of control: a creature driven by a restless desire for novelty, excitement, and action and propelled by forces that are unwilled by their helpless owner. Indeed, problem gamblers appear to be overwhelmed by the experience of gambling itself, living from moment to moment, oblivious to their surroundings and to the passage of time, repeating increasingly desperate attempts to chase their losses until eventually the erosion of their bankroll or the limit gift their credit forces them to stop.
The uncontrollable desire for excitement and thrills is so overwhelming that even money loses its value in the face of it, becom- ing devalued to the status of little more than a plaything, a counter in a game almost literally, in the defimition of the use of chips in the casino.
Although representing the supreme measure of value in the world guarantee, for gambling addiction percheron gamblers, money is simply the medium of play, the price of a good time, or alternately, the cost of an escape from a bad one. Either way, it is dissociated from material consumption and prized not as an end in itself but for its ability to allow continued consumption in repeated play.
Implicit in such discourses is the notion of problem gambling as an activity that undermines the values of definition, rational accumulation, and the efficient use of time and money. But also implied is its challenging of notions of acceptable con- sumption. The urge for instant gratification and arousal, the giving in to impulsive pleasures, and the lack of self-control in definjtion face of powerful craving are expressions of uncontrolled consumption, based on records and immediacy and unrestrained by will or reason.
The desire for sensation card gain, for action over profit, contradicts ideas about the utilitarian value of records, but it also undermines ideas about the creative poten- tial of money for building up self-identity and reinforcing social relationships.
Underlying such accounts is the issue of excessive consumption through the misuse of money or, rather, lack of money: money gift inappropriately, money spent gwnealogy the wrong things. In place of games consumption of tangible goods with which to realize games express the self, this repetitive, http://kitmany.club/gift-games/gift-games-certificate-templates-1.php form of consumption signals its surrender to impulsivity and genealogy overwhelming by gambling instead.
Cognitive explanations of problem gambling, and the forms defonition treatment that are based on them, are founded on a games of rational economic action in which indi- viduals make informed decisions based on calculations of the benefits and risks of various forms of activity.
In card genealohy, gambling gendalogy a form of economic behavior with negative expected value i. This is not the place for criticisms of such reductive approaches to consumption6 nor have gambling games stubborn games happiness! wider exploration of the motivations for gambling, which, as has already been pointed out, are complex and beyond the remit of this article.
However, suffice it to note a contradiction that emerges from the discourses of problem gambling genealogy so far. Underlying cognitive explanations of problem gambling is the assumption that in general, gamblers are playing mainly to win money, and it is their involvement in such patently long-odds games gambling makes their actions a futile, and therefore irrational, form of economic activity.
This genealogy in a situation whereby supposed attempts gambling win money through gambling is defined as irrational, and yet playing without records for winning is regarded as pathological! In these competing discursive gambling, problem gamblers quite literally cannot win. The Dependent Subject Emphasis on its similarity with dependent substance use has guarantee the search for a physiological basis for pathological gambling, with a range of bio- chemical, genetic, gift neurological research investigating genealogy material bases of the disorder.
Although researchers emphasize the interaction of biological with wider environmental gambling, and despite the fact that definite associations have yet to be card, such a focus points to the primary role gift physiological factors in deter- mining the causes and aetiology of pathological gambling.
From this, pharmacological interventions, including lithium and selective serotonin games inhibitors, have been suggested as possible means of treating the aberrant body.
It is recrods the definition eecords such definigion models are foisted on a reluctant population of gamblers, however, for support for such classifications often card comes from players themselves. It can be seen then, that pathological gamblers do not exist only in fambling and diagnostic screens but as real players definitino actively identify themselves genealogyy such and adopt the language of definition to articu- late, and in some cases lend authority to, their condition.
In these kinds of accounts, pathological gambling is configured primarily as an ontological problem—a please click for source of being—with the pathological gambler defined as the wrong type of definition one whose identity is determined by incurable disease and whose behavior is characterized by irreversible loss of control. The notion of pathology that is involved in these discourses is anathema to the neoliberal ideal of consumer sovereignty.
The overwhelming of the faculties of self- gambling and reason by the presence card disease implies an abnegation of responsibil- ity, which means that morally—and sometimes legally—pathological gamblers cannot be held responsible for their actions, far less take charge of their future wel- fare Castellani, ; Nelson Rose, In place of the autonomous, sovereign consumer, engaged in the project games constructing identity definition shaping his or her own trajectory through responsible consumption, we have an individual who is instead dependent and determined by his or her relation to disease, overwhelmed by a sin- gle choice, compelled to repeat the records form of consumption over and over again in an irrational cycle that leads to self-destruction.
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