Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and gambling stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures.
This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people near problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this yes gambling near me nicely now that stigma. Measures were based on a gambling for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination.
A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, near disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized.
Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors. In our survey, we examined several dimensions of problem gambling that contribute to desired social distance, but these explained only This study examines additional potential contributors and provides, for the first time, insights into the nature of the stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss and discrimination associated with problem gambling by a general population sample.
Addressing these aims makes a theoretical contribution to the understanding of stigma creation process for problem gambling, and an applied contribution through revealing the nature of, and contributors to, problem gambling stigma, which can inform stigma reduction measures. Stigma creation has been described as a process which involves the click the following article and near of certain individuals according to the perceived presence of a negative attribute, resulting in their devaluation, discrediting, and assumed moral failure Goffman, Once labeled with a stigmatizing attribute e.
Based on Link et al. H 1 That stereotyping, emotional reactions, and stereotypes loss and discrimination are associated with social distancing from an individual experiencing problem gambling.
Several factors are thought to influence the formation of mental illness stigma. However, this analysis explained limited variance in desired social distance and excluded other possible independent variables identified below. Nevertheless, current evidence supports the following hypothesis:. H 2 That the perceived dimensions of problem gambling are associated with social distancing from an individual experiencing problem gambling.
The latter study also found no relationship between this web page in gambling activities and desired social distance.
Given previous support for the contact hypothesis, the third hypothesis is as follows:. H 3 That the level of contact with problem gambling is associated gambling social distancing from an individual experiencing problem gambling.
Similarly, familiarity with gambling is logically hypothesized to be associated with less stigma and vice versa:.
H 4 That the level of involvement with gambling is associated with social distancing from an individual experiencing problem gambling. Ethnicity may influence stigma. Major cross-national and cross-ethnic differences have been observed in perceived dangerousness and desired social distance for depression BeyondBlue, Isolated results exist for the influence of other sociodemographic characteristics.
Given general support that stigma toward mental illness varies among different demographic groups, the final hypothesis is as follows:. H 5 That demographic characteristics are associated with social distancing from an individual experiencing problem gambling. Younger males were difficult to recruit, so these quotas were relaxed late in the survey period.
Of 3, respondents who started the survey, 2, completed it The survey was hosted by Qualtrics, who draw from online panels hosted by multiple providers. As a matter of standard operation, panel providers share their information among themselves to ensure that duplicate respondents are not recruited across panels.
Once a participant completed the survey, they were not able to answer the survey a second time. The survey ran from 13—30 March, Respondents were shown a vignette for a person experiencing problem gambling.
This vignette was adapted from Horch and Hodgins and modified to remove cues about value judgments made by others and to be more inclusive of DSM-5 article source It read:. Dan is a man who lives in your community. He has even noticed that he needs to gamble much more than he used to in order to get the same feeling of excitement.
He is often preoccupied by thoughts of gambling and gambling more to try to recover his losses. Dan has also lied to his family and friends about the extent of his gambling. These items are treated separately. Respondents selected where they felt the vignette character sat between two antonyms, e. Following Angermeyer stereotypes Matschingerthree emotional reactions were measured — fear, anger, and pity — based on level of agreement to nine statements three for each emotion about their emotional reactions if they met the protagonist in real life, e.
Data were analyzed using SPSS v There were no missing values. The study procedures were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All subjects were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Participation was voluntary, anonymous, and confidential.
Means and standard deviations, as well as correlations between scales, are presented in the Supplementary Material. Respondents displayed moderately negative stereotypical views of the vignette character Dan. Most considered that he tended to be impulsive endorsed by Fewer than half of the respondents considered him to be deviant Most respondents were somewhat unwilling to socialize with Dan, reflecting desired social distance.
Spending an evening socializing with him attracted most willingness Less willingness was indicated to start working with Dan on a project Having Dan marry into their family attracted least willingness 4.
Around three-fifths near respondents felt sorry for him A minority of respondents felt annoyance Respondents reported moderate agreement that Dan would lose social status or face discrimination. Over half disagreed that most people would hire Dan to take care of their children More than half agreed that most people would pass over Dan for another job applicant More than two-thirds agreed that most women would be reluctant to date Dan Over three-fifths disagreed that most people would believe Dan to be as trustworthy as the average citizen However, more than half disagreed that most people would think less of Dan for seeking help Responses varied more on the other items, stereotypes ambivalence among the sample.
Respondents somewhat disagreed that Dan would be perilous to others. They believed his condition would be fairly noticeable, can be recovered from and near quite disruptive. The most likely perceived origin of his gambling was stressful life circumstances.
To test our hypotheses, a hierarchical linear regression determined which variables were associated with public stigma desired near distance against problem gamblers gambling controlling near all other variables considered above. Gender and main language were treated as categorical variables.
All other variables were treated as continuous. The lowest reported tolerance for any independent variable was. The education dummy variables had tolerances of between.
Thus, no issues with multicollinearity were apparent. No other regression assumptions were violated. Neither was significant when both were included, so PGSI was removed. All were significantly related to stigma except for origin 5 the way he was raisedindicating overall support for H 2.
This model was significant and accounted for The second block added stereotyping, emotional reactions, and status loss and discrimination. These variables explained an additional To determine whether the above independent variables remained significant when controlling for individual gambling, the third block added demographic variables.
They explained an stereotypes. Older respondents, less religious people, postgraduates, and those not speaking English at home displayed higher stigma; however, these variables did not explain much unique variance and may only be significant due to the large sample size. They should be interpreted with caution stereotypes lend only marginal support for H 5. Notably, including these variables did not change the significance of any stigma creation process variables.
The final block added level of contact with problem gambling and gambling involvement. These variables explained an additional. Inclusion of these variables did not change the significance of the stigma creation process variables. Stereotypes total, the model explained These particular variables displayed the strongest associations with the separating dependent variable in all of the blocks of the model in which they were present.
Bold text indicates a statistically significant independent variable. Results relating to the first aim of the study confirm that people with gambling problems are socially stigmatized, attracting negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss and discrimination.
The stereotypes endorsed in this study suggest that failure to control gambling is interpreted as a failing of personal qualities as well as behavior. Such stereotypes are more near to contradictory evidence stereotypes education campaigns; increased contact with the stigmatized population appears more promising Corrigan, Avoiding perpetuating these stereotypes through media reports and images, including in public health and gambling help campaigns, may also assist in reducing stigma.
Willingness to socialize with Dan decreased as the http://kitmany.club/games-play/games-to-play-forestry-1.php of the relationship increased, consistent with stereotypes of being irresponsible, irrational, and untrustworthy. Surprisingly, Dan attracted more pity and intention to help, than fear or anger.
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